Question 2:
What do you think are the most important advances made
by others in the field?
 

D.H.E Gross:
 
*Chomaz' explanation of the appearence of convex intruders and their relation to the
Yang-Lee singularities. This is beautifully done in his LesHouches lectures .
 
The experimental work of d'Agostino et al.
*
 
 

 


Jorgen Randrup:

 

2) Damped Nuclear Reactions: Nucleon Exchange [Perhaps damped reactions fall below the energy regime you are
presently focussing on, in which case you can skip over this.] My work on nucleon exchange transport in damped nuclear
reactions was significant in that it provided a framework for organizing and interpreting the data and, somewhat unusually,
the theory was able to make quantitative predictions for an ever increasing number of observables without the introduction of
adjustable parameters AND yielded a generally remarkable agreement with the data.  Thus it provided a conceptually
simple basis for understanding a variety of data, including the large dissipation which had originally been such a puzzle.
 
I will not bore you by listing the individual papers for each of the separate advances, but merely mention the one in
which angular momentum is being included:
 
[Randrup: NPA383 (1982) 486].  The treatment of angular momentum was later refined considerably with Døssing
[Døssing: NPA433 (1985) 215 & 280].  Furthermore, pre-equilibrium emission was included in several papers
with Vandenbosch, again in close contact with experiment.
 
One could lump all of this under the heading of:

"Dynamics of the Dinucleus".

 

 


Michela D’Agostino:

 

Limiting to the results of the last years (indeed the Aladin papers on the caloric curve, based on the Albergo formalism, were
milestones for subsequent researches), many signals of the nuclear  liquid-gas phase transitions have been theoretically predicted 
and/or experimentally found:
 
1.Saturating caloric curves indicating the onset of phase coexistence  J.B.Natowitz et al., Phys.Rev.C65(2002) 34618
 
2.Signals of critical behaviors in the size distributions of very small systems F.Gulminelli, Ph.Chomaz, Phys.Rev.Lett.82(1999)1402
 
3.Abnormal fluctuations of the configurational energy and a negative heat capacity Ph.Chomaz and F.Gulminelli,
 Nucl.Phys.A647(1999)153
 
4.Charge correlations, indicating a spinodal decomposition B.Borderie et al, Phys.Rev.Lett.86(2001)3252
 
5.Isoscaling properties for light isotopes (gas phase) production, providing information on the phenomenon of
 isospin distillation. V.Baran et al. Phys.Rev.Lett.86(2001)4492
 
 

Maria Colonna:
 

-Experimental evidences for multifragmentation

BOWMAN DR, PEASLEE GF, DESOUZA RT, CARLIN N, GELBKE CK, GONG WG, KIM YD, LISA MA, LYNCH WG, PHAIR L, TSANG MB, WILLIAMS C, COLONNA N, HANOLD K, MCMAHAN MA, WOZNIAK GJ, MORETTO LG, FRIEDMAN WA,

      "Multifragment disintegration of the Xe-129 + Au-197 system at E/A = 50 MeV", Phys. Rev. Lett. 67 (1991) 1527

 

 

-Theoretical description of multifragmentation:

statistical models, thermodynamics of liquid-gas phase transitions and associated signals D.H.E. Gross,  "Microcanonical thermodynamics and statistical fragmentation of dissipative systems. The topological structure of the N-body phase space", Phys. Rep. C279 (1997) 119

 

-Multifragmentation pattern and dynamical evolution of complex N-body systems. Dependence of the results on the interaction employed and associated  information on the EOS

A.Ono, "Antisymmetrized molecular dynamics with quantum branching processes for collisions of heavy nuclei",  Phys. Rev. C59 (1999) 853

                                                       

-Experimental evidences of the occurrence of liquid-gas phase transitions in nuclei:  the caloric curve

 POCHODZALLA J, MOHLENKAMP T, RUBEHN T, SCHUTTAUF A, WORNER A, ZUDE E, BEGEMANNBLAICH M, BLAICH T, EMLING H, FERRERO A, GROSS C, IMME G, IORI I, KUNDE GJ, KUNZE WD, LINDENSTRUTH V, LYNEN U, MORONI A, MULLER WFJ, OCKER B, RACITI G, SANN H, SCHWARZ C, SEIDEL W, SERFLING V, STROTH J, TRAUTMANN W, TRZCINSKI A, TUCHOLSKI A, VERDE G, ZWIEGLINSKI B, "Probing the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition", Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1995) 1040

 

-Signal of phase transitions in finite systems, energy fluctuations and negative heat capacity

      Chomaz P, Gulminelli F, "Energy correlations as thermodynamical signals for phase transitions in finite systems",

      Nucl. Phys. A647 (1999) 153

 

 


Fiacomo Poggi:

 

1. J.Pochodzalla et al: PRL 75 (1995) 1040 
2. E.Plagnol et al: PR C61 (1999) 014606 
3. J.F.Dempsey et al: PR C54 (1996) 1710
4. F.Bocage et al: NP A676 (2000) 391
5. M.D'Agostino et al: NP A650 (1999) 329

(As you see I limited the coice to experimental papers)

 

 


Larry Phair:
 
1)                              Direct imaging of HBT correlations --> Brown DA, Danielewicz P. Optimized discretization of 
sources imaged in heavy-ion reactions. Physical Review C-Nuclear Physics, vol.57, no.5, May 1998, pp.2474-83.
2)                              Lifetime measurements --> Lisa MA, Gong WG, Gelbke CK, Carlin N, de Souza RT, Kim YD, Lynch 
WG, Murakami T, Poggi G, Tsang MB, Xu HM, Kwiatkowski K, Viola VE Jr, Yennello SJ. Proton evaporation 
time scales from longitudinal and transverse two-proton correlation functions.  
Physical Review C-Nuclear Physics, vol.49, no.5, May 1994, pp.2788-91.
3)                              Proposing Fisher to identify the liquid-gas phase transition --> Siemens PJ. Liquid-gas phase 
transition in nuclear matter.  Nature, vol.305, no.5933, 29 Sept. 1983, pp.410-12.
4)                              Isotope ratios (and excited state populations) to infer temperatute Albergo S, Costa S, Costanzo E
, Rubbino A. Thermodynamic quantities deduced from the emission at large angles of isotopically resolved
composite particles. [Journal Paper] Nuovo Cimento A, vol.94A, ser.2, no.2, 21 July 1986, pp.151-69.  Italy.
5)                              Disappearance of flow -->  Westfall GD, Bauer W, Craig D, Cronqvist M, Gualtieri E, Hannuschke S, 
Klakow D, Li T, Reposeur T, Vander Molen AM, Wilson WK, Winfield JS, Yee J, Yennello SJ, Lacey R, 
Elmaani A, Lauret J, Nadasen A, Norbeck E. Mass dependence of the disappearance of flow in nuclear 
collisions. Physical Review Letters, vol.71, no.13, 27 Sept. 1993, pp.1986-9.
 

 


James Elloitt:

*  "Nuclear Fragment Mass Yields from High-Energy Proton-Nucleus Interactions" by J. E. Finn et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1321–1325 (1982).

*  First experimental evidence of a power law in nuclear multifragmentation fragment yields and introduction of Fisher's droplet model and percolation to the nuclear community.

*  "Multifragmentation: nuclei break up like percolation clusters" by X. Campi, J. Phys. A 19, L917 (1986).

*  First extensive comparison between percolation and nuclear multifragmentation cluster yields.

*  "Rise and fall of multifragment emission" by C. A. Olgilvie et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1214–1217 (1991).

*  Observation of the first evidence of universal behavior in nuclear multifragmentation yields.

*  "Exact methods for expectation values in canonical fragmentation models" by K. C. Chase and A. Z. Mekjian, Phys. Rev. C 52, R2339–R2341 (1995).

*  Introduction of a method to construct fragment distributions via a recursion relation and sums of the weights of the partition function.

*  "Reducibility and thermal scaling in nuclear multifragmentation" by L. G. Moretto et al., Phys. Rep. 287, 249 (1997).

*  Comprehensive review of fundumental signatures of thermal behavior, reducibility and thermal scaling, in a variety of nuclear multifragmentation experiments.

 


Alessandro Olmi:

 

(Due to the shortness of the list, I restrict myself to experimental papers)
1) J.B. Natowitz et al. PR C 65 (2002)034618 (caloric curves)
2) E. Plagnol et al. PR C 61 (2000) 014606 (midvelocity emiss.)
3) B. Borderie et al. PRL 86 (2001) 3252 (spinodal decomp.)
4) F. Bocage et al. NP A676 (2000) 391 (dynamical effects)
5) L.G. Sobotka et al. PR C 50 (1994) R1272 (n-p asymmetry)

 


Francesca Guminelli:

 

*  The developement of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics

       (by H.Feldmeier et al., H.Horiuchi et al.)

*  The developement of macroscopic statistical multifragmentation models  (by D.Gross and J.Bondorf)

*  The first Nautilus results on multifragmentation as a  process occurring on a very short time scale correlation functions) and with a threshold energy (Dalitz plots)

 

The spread experimental evidence of reducibility and scaling in multifragmentation data ( EOS scaling function, Moretto’s reducibility analyses, MSU isoscaling)

 


Rolf Scharenberg:

 
Coulomb instability in hot compound nuclei approaching the liquid-gas transition.
      S. Levit and  P. Bonche Nucl. Phys. A 437, 426 (1985).
 
Signals of a phase transition in nuclear multifragmentation.
      X. Campi Phys. Lett. B208, 351 (1988)
 
Statistical Multifragmentation of nuclei
      J. P. Bondorf et al Phys. Rep. 257, 133. (1995).
 
Microcanonical thermodynamics: phase transitions in "small" systems.
      D. H. E. gross, world scientific C 2001, singapore.

 


Lee Sobotka:

 

A.                 Evolution of the nuclear level density (parameter) with excitation energy

 Shlomo and Natowitz, PRC 44, 2878 (1991).

B.                 Dynamics beyond mean field - clustering

Danielewicz and Bertsch, NP A533, 712 (1991), PRC 51, 716(1995).

C.                Mature discussion of Pairing and Quarteting at low density

G. Ro”pke et al, PRL 80,3177 (1998).

D.                Antisymmetrized dynamics

Feldmeier and Schnark, Rev of Modern Physics, 72, 655 (2000), reviews this subject.

E.                 Clear picture of the surface entropy in cluster emission and thermo in general of small systems

Toke, Lu and Schroder, PRC 67, 034609 (2003).

F.                 Insight into mesoscopic phase transitions. However almost all presentations go too far and will not convince people outside our field. For example the meaning of auxiliary thermodynamic variables is not dealt. Nevertheless great work is:

Chomaz et al. PRL 85, 3587 (2000.)

 


Victor Viola:

 
Other results -- everything has a broad base, so it's difficult to be specific.
 
1)            The caloric curve -- Pochodzalla PRL (1995) and Natowitz (2002)
 
2)            Transport Theory -- BUU/LV/Q(A)MD.....  Bertsch, Danielewicz,et al. Don't know quite how to pinpoint this, but 
it's been a crucial   theoretical advance.
 
3)            Compression effects and dense nuclear matter-- Bevalac/GSI, Reisdorf et al , Westfall, Braun-Munziger  et al
 
4)            Exotic nuclei -- isotopes far from stability, new elements (?), halo nuclei – Tanihata
 
5)            Nuclear Compressibility -- Youngblood et al.

 


Wolfgang Trautman:
 
3 non-Aladin papers (so I chose theory):
       Jaqaman et al., PRC 27, 2782 (1983) 'A phase diagram of nuclear matter'
       Schnack and Feldmeier, PLB 409 (1997) 6 'A phase transition in a small nuclear system'
       Fuchs et al., NPA 626 (1997) 987 'We can extract meaningful thermodynamic parameters'

 


Jean:

 

I feel unable to speak about nuclear reaction dynamics as a time-dependent process. I do not know how far MD,
QMD ans AMD were conclusive as far as our understanding of the dynamical aspects are concerned (way into 
the spinodal region,...) As well as I know H. Wolter and M. Di Toro and coll. have done a large amount of 
interesting work which I remember from conferences and  discussions.
 
Concerning the fragmentation aspect:
 
-                      the work of D. Gross, f. i. Gross and Votyakov, Eur. Phys. J B 15 (2000) 115 and related work concerning the 
microcanonical ensemble and negative heat capacity
 
   - the work by Gulminelli and Chomaz on the same subject (different papers)
 
   - the work of Campi and coll. on percolation apects, X. Campi, J. Phys. A : Math. Gen. 19 (1986) L917 ansd Phys. Lett. B 208 (1988) 351
 
  On the experimental side:
 
   - Pochodzalla et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1995) 1040
 
   - M. D'Agostino et al., Phys. Lett. B 473 (2000) 219

 


Virgil Baran:

 

*  transport models at Fermi energies: M. Colonna, N. Colonna, A. Bonasera and M. Di Toro 'Equilibrium features and dynamical instabilities in Nuclear Fragmentation' Nucl. Phys. A541 (1992) 295

 

*  IMF dynamical production at midvelocity, as a dissipation mechanism at Fermi energies: Montoya CP, Lynch WG, Bowman DR, et al. 'Fragmentation of necklike structures' Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 (1994) 3070-3073  

 

*  Evidences for the kinetic of the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei: Borderie B, Tabacaru G, Chomaz P, et al. 'Evidence for spinodal decomposition in nuclear multifragmentation'  Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (15): 3252-3255   

 

*  Search for new signals and observables in liquid-gas phase transition of finite systems, important in clarifying the nature of nuclear multifragmentation: Chomaz P. and  Guminelli F. "Energy correlations as thermodynamical signals for phase transitions in finite systems",  Nucl. Phys. A647 (1999) 153        

 

*  experimental observables related to the properties of symmetry energy beyond normal conditions: Xu H.S. et al. 'Isospin Fractionation in Nuclear Multifragmentation' Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 716-719

 


Subal DasGupta:

1) J. E. Finn et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 49,1321(1982)
 
2) J. Pochodzalla et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 75,1040(1995)
 
3) C. A. Ogilvie et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 67,1214(1991)
 
4) J. P. Bondorf et al., Physics Reports 257,133(1995)
 
5) P. J. Siemens, Nature,305,410(1983)
 

Massimo DiToro:
 

I am mostly focussing on recent stimulating results.

 

*  Properties of spinodal instabilities.   M.Colonna and Ph.Chomaz, Phys.Rev. C49 (1994) 1908

 

*  Fossil Relics of the spinodal decomposition in charge correlation measurements.   B.Borderie et al., Phys.Rev.Lett. 86 (2001) 3252 

 

*  Experimental Signature of a first order liquid-gas Phase Transition: Abnormal kinetic energy fluctuations and negative heat capacity.  M.D'Agostino et al., Nucl.Phys. A650 (1999) 329

 

*  Neutron/proton correlation functions as a probe of the symmetry energy. L.Chen, V.Greco, C.M.Ko and B.A.Li, Phys.Rev.Lett. 90 (2003) 162701

 

*  Isoscaling in semiperipheral collisions. Possible tracer of isospin equilibration.  G.A.Souliotis et al.,    "Isotopic Scaling of Heavy Projectile Residues..."   arXiv:nucl-exp/0305004

 

 


Chomaz Philippe:

 

What do you think are the most important advances made by others in the field? Please list up to five publications in which these advances are presented and of which you are not an author.

 

Please try to take into account the entire field of nuclear reaction dynamics and thermodynamics in the Fermi energy regime.

 

Please consider the following in your response. The wealth of experimental data and associated analysis The diversity in theoretical approaches and associated "signals"

 

Not coming back to the point above on which a lot of people have worked such as D. Gross in particular for a); G. Bertch, H. Heiselberg, C.J. Pethick and D.G. Ravenhall  (PRL{61}{1988}{818}) for b); here is my selection of 3 topics

 

a)                 The work on the scaling and critical behaviors from the early work of X. Campi and W. Bauer to the recent developments by L. Moretto and J.B. Elliot seems to me a very important piece of physics.

 

b)                 The come back of thermodynamics through the caloric curve from Aladin followed by an enormous work about nuclear thermometry is I think an essential step in the recent progress of the field (see the recent papers of  Joe Natowitz et al)

 

The various flows and there link (through transport theory) to the EOS and transport properties is I think an impressive achievement of the field. (see recent review by Pawel Danielewicz et al)

 

Eric Plagnol:

 

What do you think are the most important advances made by others in the field?
Please list up to five publications in which these advances are presented and of which you are not an author.
 
- Statistical models : D.H.E.Gross et al., Z.Phys, A309(1982)41.
- Statistical models : J.Bondorf et al., Nucl. PHys, A387(1982)25c
- Percolation in Nuclear Physics : X.Campi, Phys. Lett. B,208(1988)351
- Rise and fall of Multifragmentation : C.Ogilvie and the Aladin coll., Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(1991)1214
- The Caloric Curve : J.Pochodzalla and the Aladin coll. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(1995)1040
- The negative heat capacity : P.Chomaz and F.Gulminelli, Phys. Rev Lett. 82(1999)1402
 
Let me point out  that, as explained above, I do not agree with the physical interpretation that is advocated in the
two last references. I do admit however that the impact they have had on the community has been significative 
and largely positive.
 

Piera Sapienza:
 

Question 2 is the most difficult to me.

 

The unexpected yield of hard photons observed by  E. Grosse (Eur. Jour. 1984-85?) triggered a lot of experiments, including our experiments, and theoretical interpretations. More in general, concerning particle production I would like to quote the report by Cassing, Mosel and Metag (Phys. Rep. 1990). I liked also the work done by KAOS with the calculation by Danielewicz  (PRL 2001-02?)

 

Collective observables such as flow and balance energy have certainly provide useful information on the EOS, in my opinion good examples are the works of Westfall and Reisdorf at higher energy. On the concept of temperature there has been a lot of discussion since I have memory. I would like to quote the method for the extraction of the nuclear temperature from the isotope ratios (S. Albergo et al Nuovo Cimento) which has been widely adopted and a recent letter by Natowicz (PRL 2003) which I liked a lot.

 

Intermediate fragment emission has been a distinguished feature both in central and semi-peripheral collisions.

On multifragmentation and phase transition there have been such an intense activity which I guess it should be difficult also for the experts to pull out  the most representative works of the field. The GSI caloric curve is very actractive (Rise and fall, … PRL) and has triggered a lot of exp. and theor. works also at intermediate energy; however the need for a specific approach to face the problems due to finites of the system and the equilibrium concept in a dynamical evolving system addressed by Chomaz and Gulminelli seem very convincing to me (PRL 2000). I have appreciate very much also the work of INDRA on the fossile signal of spinodal decomposition (Borderie et al PRL) even if it refers to such a tiny part of the cross section.

 
IMF emission from mid-rapidity and the neck formation and disassembly have provided interesting information.
As examples I would like to quote the intense activity of M. Di Toro and collaborators (i.e. PRC98) and the work 
of FIASCO (Piantelli PRL01) and INDRA. Since isospin effects are enhanced in this semi-peripheral reactions, 
this field seems to me quite promising for the very near feature and I think that CHIMERA will contribute a lot. I 
also like the interferometry analysis by R. Ghetti (PRL2001,PRL2003).
 

Sherry Yennello:

Experimentally I think the following two works are among those that are particularly noteworthy.

 

Isotopic composition of fragments as a signature of parent system

R. Wada, PRL58 (1987)

 

Critical Temperature of Symmetric Nuclear Matter – caloric curve consensus

J.B. Natowitz et al,  Phys Rev Lett89,212701 (2002)

 

Collectively the theoretical work pushing the N/Z degree of freedom is very important

BALi / Ko

DiToro/Colona/Baran

Chomaz / Gulminelli

 

Nicolas   Le Neindre:
Theoretical aspects
*    “Statistical multifragmentation of nuclei” 
      J.P. Bondorf et al, Physics Report Vol. 257 (1995), p133-221
* “Microcanonical thermodynamics and statistical fragmentation of dissipative systems” 
   D.H.E. Gross, Physics Report Vol. 279 no3-4 (1997), p119-202

Experimental results

*  “Probing the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition”

      J. Pochodzalla, Physics Review Letters, Vol 75 no6 (1995), p1040-1043

*  “Rapid decrease of fragment emission time in the range of 3-5 A. MeV excitation energy”

      M. Louvel et al, Physics Letter B 320 (1994), p221-226

*  “Reducibility and thermal scaling in nuclear multifragmentation”

      L.G. Moretto et al, Physics report, Vol. 287 no3 (1997), p250-336

 


Marie-France Rivet:

Determination of fragment emission times and of multifragmentation time

Determination of different time-scales associated with multifragmentation (LPC Caen-France).

*  “Time-scale analysis of events with three heavy fragments in the Ne+Au collisions at 60 MeV/u.”

      R. Bougault et al. Phys. Lett. B 232 (1989) 291.

*  “Rapid decrease of fragment emission time in the range of 3 to 5 MeV/u excitation energy.”

      M. Louvel et al. Phys. Lett. B 320 (1994) 221.

*  “Nuclear disassembly time scales using space-time correlations.”

      D. Durand et al., Phys. Lett. B 345 (1995) 397

 

Dynamics of peripheral and semi-peripheral collisions

First evidence of oriented fission in sequential fission measurements. Excitation energy and angular momentum sharing (INFN Firenze, Italy).

*  “Analysis of the sequential fission observed in collision of 100Mo+100Mo and 120Sn+100Sn around 20 A.MeV.” A.A. Stefanini et al., Z. Phys. A 351 (1995) 167.

*  “Energy and angular momentum sharing in dissipative collisions.” G. Casini et al., Eru. Phys. J. A 9 (2000) 491.

*  “Intermediate mass fragment emission pattern in peripheral heavy ion collisions at Fermi energies.” S. Piantelli et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002) 052701.

 

Semi-classical simulations of heavy-ion collisions,

Semi-classical simulations were a great support to experimental physicists for understanding their results and for foreseeing new experiments. Since the pioneer works of G. Bertsch, many groups around the world developed such simulation, called BUU, BNV, Landau-Vlasov, AMD…

*  “The Boltzmann equation at the border line. A decade of Monte Carlo simulations of a quantum kinetic equation” A. Bonasera, F. Bulminelli and J. Molitoris, Phys. Rep. 243 (1994) 1-124.

*  “Modélisation d’un systéme infini de nucléons. Priopriétés statiques et dynamiques. Etude des fluctuations de densité.” Ph. Chomaz, M. colonna, A. Guarnera, and J. Randrup, Phys. Rev. Lett 73 (1994) 3512.

*  “Brownian One-Body Dynamics in Nulcei.” Ph. Chomaz, M. Colonna, A. Guarnera, and J. Randrup, Phys. Rev. Lett 73 (1994)3512.

*  “Production of deuterons and pions in a transport model of energetic heavy-ion reactions.” P. Danielewicz and G.F.Bertsch, Nucl. Phys. A 533 (1991) 712.

*  “Fragment formation studied with antisymmetrized version of molecular dynamics with two-nucleon collisions.” A. Ono, H. Horiuchi, T. Maruyama, And A. Ohnishi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 (2002) 2898; Prog. Theor. Phys. 87 (1992) 1185.

 

Isospin effects: Chemical spinodal or not?

*  “Phase transition in warm, asymmetric nuclear matter.” H. Müller and B.D. Serot, Phys. Rev. C 52 (1995) 2072.

*  “Nuclear fragmentation: sampling the instabilities of binary systems.”  V. Baran et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (2001) 4492.

*  “Mechanical and Chemical instabilities in finite quantum systems.” M. Colonna and Ph. Chomaz and S. Ayik, Phys. Rev. Lett., 88 (2002) 122701.

*  “A unique spinodal region in asymmetric nuclear matter.” J. Margueron and Ph. Chomaz, Phys. Rev. C 67 (2003) 041602.

 

Negative heat capacity

*  ”Thermodynamical features of multifragmentation in peripheral Au+Au collisions at 35 AmeV.” M. D’Agostino et al., Nucl. Phys. A 650 (1999) 329.

*  “Negative heat capacity in the critical region of nuclear fragmentation: an experimental evidence of the liquid-gas phase transition.” M. D’Agostino et al., Phys. Lett. B 473 (2000) 219.

 


Wolfgang Bauer:

In no particular order, I would list some theory and some experimental papers.  Most of them are again in the earlier period of the 20-year time interval that you specified.  And this is again due to the fact that papers accumulate impact over their lifetime - so more recent papers are weighted less by this consideration.

1) The earliest paper is want to list is A. S. Hirsch, A. Bujak, J. E. Finn, L. J. Gutay, R. W. Minich, N. T. Porile, R. P. Scharenberg, B. C. Stringfellow, and F. Turkot Phys. Rev. C 29 , 508-525 (1984).  This paper deals with proton-induced multi-fragmentation reactions experiments done at Fermilab.  It brings up the question of critical behavior.  Their observation of power-laws got me interested in this field. 247 citations.

2) Campi wrote a beautiful paper in 1986 that proposed new signatures for criticality.  Highly cited with 134 citations. X. Campi, J. Phys. A19, L917 (1986).

3) The paper that introduced the somewhat controversial caloric curve was very thought provoking and entailed a large number of investigations to follow - 315 citations so far.  J. Pochodzalla et al., PRL 75, 1040 (1995).

4 and 5) The first two paper that got the whole heavy ion transport business started were G.F. Bertsch, H. Kruse, and S. Das Gupta, PRC 29, 673 (1984) and H. Kruse, BV Jacak, and H. Stöcker, PRL 54, 289 (1985). They received 260 and 241 citations, respectively.

Well, that makes five papers.  A very biased selection on my part.  I could have named many others.  But 5 is a very stringent limit.

 


Bernard Borderie:
Determination of time scales for multifragmentation: rapid decrease of the average emission time between 
fragments in the range 3-5 AMeV and unique measurement of the time needed to produce fragments (at least 100-
150 fm/c).
                   R. Bougault et al., Phys. Lett. B232 (1989) 291.
                   M. Louvel et al., Phys. Lett. B320 (1994) 221.
                   D. Curand et al., Phys. Lett. B345 (1995) 397.
Stochastic mean field simulations: about seven years of efforts to obtain an approximate treatment of the Boltzman-
Langevin transport equation in a semi-classical approach (BOB) to describe multifragmentation.
                   J. Randrup and B. Remaud, Nucl. Phys. A514 (1990) 339.
                   Ph. Chomaz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 (1994) 3512.
A. Guarnera et al, Phys. Lett. B403 (1991) 191.
First measurements of microcanonical negative heat capacity in multifragmentation.
                   M. D’Agostino et al., Phys. Lett. B473 (2000) 219.
                   M. D’Agostino et al., Nucl. Phys. A699 (2002) 795.
Correlation of observables of multifragmentation (fragment multiplicity, average emission time between fragments 
and thermally induced radial expansion) into a single experiment.
                   L. Beaulieu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 5971.
                   T. Lefort et al., Phys. Rev. C64 (2001) 064603.
                   L. Beaulieu et al., Phys. Rev. C64 (2001) 064604.
First order phase transition in finite systems: microcanonical lattice gas model with a constrained average volume 
and topology of event distributions.
                         F. Gulminelli et al., Europhys. Lett. 50 (2000) 434.
                   Ph. Chomaz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 3587.
                   Ph. Chomaz et al., Phys. Rev. E64 (2001) 046114.